Evidence for the toxicity to vultures of NSAIDs other than diclofenac

The common and widespread veterinary use of diclofenac in past decades was the main cause of vulture declines in South Asia. However, diclofenac is not the only vulture-toxic Non-steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drug (NSAID) in use and thereby killing vultures.
Now that diclofenac is banned in South Asia and its veterinary use greatly reduced in the region, other vulture-toxic NSAIDs are competing with meloxicam for the former market share of diclofenac and thereby pose a real threat to the recovery of Asia’s critically endangered vultures.


We have evidence for the toxicity to vultures of six NSAIDs other than diclofenac, namely: aceclofenac, carprofen, flunixin, ketoprofen, nimesulide and phenylbutazone.

We have presented this evidence in the summaries below, and we hope that these documents will assist decision makers bring about bans on all vulture-toxic NSAIDs in South Asia to allow vulture populations to recover.

Meloxicam remains the only known vulture-safe NSAID.